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Sunday, September 20, 2020

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David Grinspoon says: "You get this picture where these two habitable — and maybe inhabited — worlds [Earth and Venus] are right next door to each other for billions of years, who knows, exchanging life or evolving in parallel," External link

discovermagazine Friday, September 18, 2020 9:17:00 PM CEST

Sara Seager said: "She dug through the literature and found this very obscure gas that would be a unique biosignature," External link

discovermagazine Friday, September 18, 2020 9:17:00 PM CEST

Chris Lintott added: “It took about 18 months [of analysis] to convince ourselves there was a signal," said Greaves. They then followed up in March 2019 with the powerful Atacama Large Millimiter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, which uncovered the same phosphine signal at a higher resolution. These independent detections — at a level of about 20 parts per billion — from two different facilities gave the team confidence that the phosphine signal was real. Twenty parts per billion may not seem like a lot, but because phosphine easily breaks down when exposed to the ultraviolet sunlight, the researchers say something must be replenishing it. So where could phosphine come from? On Earth, phosphine is generated by microbes in oxygen-free environments that are rather unpleasant by human standards — inside the guts of penguins , for example. Absent of life, the production of phosphine requires great temperatures and pressures, and typically a source of hydrogen to react with. But the team doesn’t think Venus can provide all three. However, phosphine has been detected in the hydrogen-rich atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, where it's generated deep inside the gas giants in conditions far more extreme than those found on Venus. "The presence of phosphine is telling us something interesting," Ehlmann tells Astronomy . "Either there's something about the chemistry of Venus' atmosphere we don't understand, or — the far more extraordinary claim — maybe there's a biological source". A Great Debate. Some researchers are skeptical of the detection itself; perhaps the signal is from another chemical masquerading as phosphine. The paper was initially rejected by the journal Science by referees who objected to the data analysis, says Seager. But, she adds, the techniques the team used were standard to radio astronomy. (It’s worth noting that a journal rejection in and of itself arguably says little, as the list of is rather extensive.) Compounds typically absorb at numerous wavelengths, and together, they create a unique, recognizable chemical fingerprint. However, the team has identified phosphine by absorption at only a single wavelength — one that is also shared by sulfur dioxide. This gives some researchers pause. "As a geochemist, I always worry about detection from one peak," says Justin Filiberto, a geochemist at LPI. "A single line is a coincidence, not a detection," adds Kevin Zahnle, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. The team behind the new find agrees that more phosphine lines should be sought to confirm its presence. But they also argue they can rule out sulfur dioxide based on their current observations. If it were a signal from sulfur dioxide, they say, other spectral lines should have been present, which they did detect. This is convincing to some. However, "I'm told there has been much skepticism, including from journal referees, about the detection," tweeted Chris Lintott , an astrophysicist at the University of Oxford and host of the BBC's program The Sky at Night. "JCMT and ALMA were not made to look at things as bright as Venus and this is a difficult observation". But Greaves and radio astronomers Anita Richards of the University of Manchester "know JCMT and ALMA very well,” External link

discovermagazine Friday, September 18, 2020 9:17:00 PM CEST

Brian Toon said: "There has been a puzzle of why these reactions occur so fast. DON'T MISS " External link

express Friday, September 11, 2020 9:24:00 PM CEST

Brian Toon dijo: "Ha habido un enigma de por qué estas reacciones ocurren tan rápido" External link

notimerica Friday, September 11, 2020 4:57:00 PM CEST

Brian Toon dijo: "Creo que hemos descubierto algo importante aquí" "Es sutil, pero podría marcar una gran diferencia" External link

notimerica Friday, September 11, 2020 4:57:00 PM CEST

Brian Toon said: "There has been a puzzle of why these reactions occur so fast," External link

eurekalert Friday, September 11, 2020 4:22:00 PM CEST

Brian Toon said: "I think we've discovered something important here," "It's subtle, but it could make a big difference" External link

eurekalert Friday, September 11, 2020 4:22:00 PM CEST

Stefan Enbom säger: - På det här sättet kommer vi att minska utsläppen av stoft och svaveldioxid, External link

bergsmannen Wednesday, August 26, 2020 3:24:00 PM CEST

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